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Planning, Zoning & Development

Local government approaches to planning, zoning, and development can have a very significant impact on solar energy growth. When done right, planning and zoning can help facilitate the rapid expansion of solar energy, while balancing other development priorities in the community. However, many local planning and zoning approaches inadvertently discourage solar energy growth by increasing the time and expense required for solar installations.

The examples and resources in this chapter will help communities integrate solar into local zoning codes to reduce costs, support a thriving local solar market, and increase the use of clean, low-cost, renewable energy. This chapter provides information on how local governments can incorporate solar energy goals into local planning documents, such as comprehensive plans, functional plans, or small area plans. Finally, the chapter identifies how barriers and gaps in code language could affect the deployment of solar energy locally.

 

Integrating Solar Into Planning Processes and Documents

Municipalities and counties use a variety of documents to plan for future development. These documents help the community manage competing priorities and provide guidance on where and how development should occur. Zoning and development standards reflect the vision and goals set forth in a community’s planning documents. As such, integrating solar into the planning processes and documents is critical to establishing a foundation for the long-term growth of the local solar market.

As the American Planning Association (APA) notes, local plans generally fall into three categories: comprehensive plans, subarea plans, and functional plans.[1]

Comprehensive plans. Sometimes referred to as master or general plans, comprehensive plans provide a framework for a community’s growth in the next 20-25 years. They also provide the legal basis for local zoning and land use regulations. A comprehensive plan provides an opportunity to incorporate solar into a community’s development goals, while balancing solar development against other community values. (For example, a community that values both solar development and tree preservation could include a strategy to manage these competing priorities.)

Subarea plans provide a framework for the redevelopment of a limited geographic area, such as a neighborhood, special district, or corridor. Compared to a comprehensive plan, subarea plans can include more specific goals for particular areas of land.[2] Frequently, communities develop design guidelines that are more specific than the requirements in the comprehensive plan or zoning ordinance. Local governments can integrate solar energy goals into these guidelines to encourage solar development in an optimal location.

Functional Plans are stand-alone plans that cover a specific topic, such as energy or sustainability. Functional plans can either be part of a comprehensive plan or stand-alone documents. Within the plans, local governments can establish policies, goals, and implementation actions to meet their objectives for solar energy development. For example, a community interested in resilience could include a goal of installing 1 MW of solar on community facilities by a certain deadline, with interim action steps to work toward this goal.

 

Best Practices in Zoning for Solar

Zoning codes have a direct influence on the amount of solar energy installed in a community. A National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) study found a strong correlation between higher levels of installed solar capacity per capita and references to solar in the local code.

Figure 1: Average installed PV for municipalities across select states by substantive solar reference in municipal code (watts per capita)[3]

Many communities say publicly that they allow solar installations even though there is no mention of solar in their zoning code. In these instances, however, the local government has a gap in its code that leaves the community and solar energy system owners vulnerable. A resident could oppose a neighbor’s installation or sue the local government for allowing a land use that is not defined or explicitly allowed in local land use regulations. According to the APA, “a conspicuous silence on the part of local policies, plans, and regulations on the topic of solar energy use constitutes a significant barrier to adoption and implementation of these technologies.”[4]

Definitions

It is important for local governments to include a comprehensive definition of solar energy systems in the code, in order to avoid any potential misinterpretations. This includes broadly defining solar energy systems to incorporate both passive and active solar energy collection and electricity generation, as well as water heating.

Including storage in the definition will accommodate the anticipated growth in battery storage devices linked to solar energy systems and allow the review of storage equipment as part of, rather than separate from, the solar energy system. Additionally, defining and distinguishing between roof-mounted and ground-mounted installations of various sizes will allow subsequent sections of the code to identify which projects require separate review, and which installations are eligible to bypass zoning review and apply directly for a building permit. These distinctions may be made in a use table.

The examples below distinguish between types of solar energy systems and enable communities to apply performance or design standards in an appropriate context.

Solar energy system: Any device or structural design feature used for the collection, storage, and distribution of solar energy for space heating, space cooling, lighting, electric generation, or water heating.

Solar energy system, roof-mounted: A solar energy system that is structurally mounted to the roof of a building or structure.

Solar energy system, ground-mounted: A solar energy system that is structurally mounted to the ground and is not roof-mounted.

Solar energy system, large-scale: A solar energy system that occupies more than 40,000 square feet of surface area.

Solar energy system, medium-scale: A solar energy system that occupies more than 1,750 but less than 40,000 square feet of surface area.

Solar energy system, small-scale: A solar energy system that occupies 1,750 square feet of surface area or less. Please note that this area may be decreased where appropriate for jurisdictions or zoning districts with small parcel sizes.

By-Right Solar PV

Zoning codes typically specify development that is allowed within a zoning district as a right. Said another way, a property owner has the right to develop a parcel based on the rules within the underlying zoning for that parcel. This type of development may be referred to as by-right. Generally, development that is permitted by-right is allowed with a standard building and electrical permits and is approved administratively.

Zoning ordinances often specify the primary and accessory uses that are permitted by-right within particular zoning categories. As its name would suggest, primary uses are the predominant use on a site. Accessory uses are those that are incidental or in support of the site’s primary use. An example of something that would be permitted by-right would be the development of a single-family home as a primary use in an R-1 residential zone. Another would be a shed as an accessory use in the same R-1 residential zone. Both would be approved administratively if the property owner files the necessary permits. As such, by-right development does not require a special use permit, conditional use permit, or zoning variance.

There are many advantages to including small rooftop and ground-mounted solar installations as by-right development in all major zoning districts. For municipalities and counties, this streamlines the process for small-scale solar PV systems and minimizes staff review time. Many zoning codes include solar energy systems in a use table or a listing of permitted accessory uses. Local governments can establish development standards that by-right solar energy systems must meet to avoid the need for additional permits or a variance.

Most important, both roof-mounted solar energy systems of any scale and small-scale, ground-mounted solar energy systems may be allowed as accessory uses in all major zoning districts without zoning review. Further, communities can require a conditional use permit and site plan requirements for medium- and large-scale ground-mounted systems.

The following two examples provide zoning code language that specify solar as a by-right:

Maricopa County, Arizona Zoning Ordinance:

“Renewable energy systems, other than utility-scale electrical generating stations, are allowed as an accessory use within any zoning district, subject to the provisions of Article 1206.3 [which list development standards for such systems].”[5]

Chisago County, Minnesota Solar Energy Systems Ordinance:

“Rooftop or other Architecturally-Integrated Solar Energy Systems: Systems which are accessory to the principal land use, rooftop or other architecturally-integrated systems shall be regulated as follows:

  1. Rooftop or other architecturally-integrated systems are permitted accessory uses in all districts in which buildings and structures are permitted.
  2. No Solar Site permit is required, but the owner or contractor shall obtain a building permit before installing a rooftop or other architecturally-integrated solar energy system.”[6]

Aesthetic Requirements

Aesthetic standards can be adapted to accommodate solar energy systems while meeting a community’s aesthetic goals. For example, many zoning codes require screening for rooftop mechanical equipment. However, screening on solar panels may cause shading, add new costs, and discourage new installations. An overall best practice is for communities to allow a solar energy system to be displayed openly and avoid onerous screening and aesthetic requirements.

For aesthetic purposes, some communities require flush-mounted systems where PV modules must be mounted parallel to the plane of the roof. On pitched roofs, flush mounting is an effective way to alleviate structural concerns and visually integrate the system with the roof. However, requiring solar energy systems to be mounted flush with flat roofs can decrease efficiency. On flat roofs, an array tilt angle optimized for its latitude is generally preferred (see figure below). An exemption for solar energy systems on flat roofs will ensure systems may be optimized for maximum efficiency.

Figure 2: Solar Array on a Furniture Factory in Gardner, MA.

Another common aesthetic concern is that PV modules will cause blinding glare or act like mirrors. However, PV modules use non-reflective glass, which is generally less reflective than windows.[7]

Height

Height restrictions may block the construction of some solar energy installations if the building is already at the maximum allowed height. Providing rooftop solar an exemption from building height restrictions (or an allowance to exceed a certain height) can eliminate this potential barrier.

The following two examples provide zoning code language discussing solar energy height:

Brownsville, Texas Solar Energy Ordinance:

“Roof-mounted solar energy system. Height – Roof-mounted solar energy systems may exceed the height limits applicable to each district by five feet.”[8]

Adams County, Colorado:

“Maximum Height of Attached Panels: Solar panels attached to a roof shall not exceed the maximum permitted height of the structure type by more than five (5) feet. Maximum Height of Detached Solar Panels: Fifteen (15) feet.[9]

For ground-mounted systems, one approach is to establish a maximum allowed height of 10-15 feet or apply the zoning district’s accessory use height maximum to accessory use systems. The PV modules in ground-mounted single-axis tracking systems, common for large-scale installations, generally do not exceed 10 feet, and would therefore be within the maximum height limits established for accessory uses in most zoning ordinances. The modules may be higher in smaller ground-mounted PV systems, where the modules are fixed rather than mounted on tracking.

Trees

Solar energy advocates may run into conflict with tree preservationists and urban foresters, since trees can reduce the output from solar energy systems. Trees can conflict with solar in three main ways. First, a property owner may want to cut down trees to install a solar energy system, but may be prohibited from doing so or charged a fee by the local government. Second, trees on an adjacent property may grow large enough that the shade gets in the way of the panels. Finally, a neighbor could plant new trees that block a solar system’s access to the sun.[10]

Communities can develop plans to reduce this conflict and allow homeowners to install solar while the locality maintains its tree canopy. For example, communities can mandate that removed trees be replaced, and that trees that are larger or more mature require a higher level of replacement.[11]

Ground-Mounted Solar

Larger ground-mounted systems are typically considered a primary use, whereas smaller systems associated with buildings are an accessory use. Compared to small-scale solar developments, medium- and large-scale ground-mounted solar energy systems come with additional considerations (for example, grading and storm water management.) As a result, communities will need to regulate such development through a conditional or special use permit. The conditional use permit process allows communities to consider each medium- and large-scale, ground-mounted solar energy system within its unique context and apply development requirements as appropriate. Such an approach establishes clear regulatory pathways and can help expand the local solar market.

Some communities choose to restrict ground-mounted, large-scale solar to industrial zoning districts, but there are many benefits to expanding the range of locations where large-scale solar is allowed. The purpose of industrial districts is to manage the impacts of disruptive activities such as noise, pollution, and traffic. Once they are in operation, large-scale PV facilities do not pose such drawbacks; they are quiet and clean and do not have many employees on-site.

Setbacks for ground-mounted solar

Setbacks are requirements to offset structures from property lines and preserve open areas. They are generally required for visibility and traffic safety, access to structures, and access to natural light, ventilation, and landscaping. The setback requirements for the principal structure (e.g. a single-family home in an R-1 zone) are generally greater than those for accessory structures, such as sheds or detached garages. Therefore, accessory structure setbacks, which are generally less restrictive, may be appropriate for accessory ground-mounted solar installations. Principal structure setbacks are more restrictive and may be appropriate for primary use solar. However, applying principal structure setback requirements to accessory use, ground-mounted solar energy systems could eliminate any yard area available and render such installations unfeasible. Providing solar energy systems an exemption from setback requirements, or an allowance to go beyond these setbacks, eliminates a potential barrier to solar energy development.

The following example provides zoning code language discussing setback requirements for ground-mounted solar:

The City of Milwaukee, Wisconsin:

Requires reasonable setbacks for ground-mounted solar energy systems:

  • If the ground-mounted solar energy system is less than 20 feet in height, the system must be 1.5 feet from all property lines.
  • If the ground-mounted solar energy system is greater than 20 feet in height, the system must comply with setback regulations for a principal building structure.

Lot Coverage and Impervious Surface Regulations

In addition to setback requirements, many communities establish maximum lot coverage allowances, limiting the percentage of the lot that may be covered by buildings or impervious surfaces. Communities use coverage allowances for two main reasons. One is to maintain a certain character for the community. The other is to maintain vegetated areas, which can minimize the amount of storm water runoff onto neighboring properties.

Technically, ground-mounted PV equipment pads and racking posts are impervious surfaces. However, they generally have spaces between them where water can flow and support vegetative growth. Vegetation beneath the PV arrays aids in storm water absorption, reduces erosion, and improves the visual appearance of the property.

Figure 3: Native vegetation growing under the solar PV array at the National Wind Technology Center in Colorado.[12]

If small-scale, accessory use, ground-mounted solar installations are counted toward total lot coverage allowances, they may exceed the total allowance when added to primary and accessory buildings. Similarly, lot coverage maximums can prevent many large-scale, principal-use solar energy systems from moving forward.

Large-scale solar developers can apply for a variance or exemption from such requirements, but this adds risk, costs, and time to the project development. To reduce barriers and decrease staff time required for processing a variance, municipalities and counties can amend the zoning ordinance to provide exceptions or allowances for lot coverage and impervious surface requirements for large-scale ground-mounted solar energy systems which could be processed administratively.

By providing a conditional or special use permit to large-scale solar energy systems, local governments can consider each site individually and require accommodations to address specific impacts for large-scale solar projects. For example, a landscaped buffer or a particular style of wall or fencing may be required in lieu of a setback or lot coverage requirement to address visual impacts on neighboring land uses. Communities can also establish standards for large-scale development, such as water quality and habitat improvements. For example, Minnesota and Maryland have statutes that encourage large-scale, ground-mounted solar sites to “provide native perennial vegetation and foraging habitat beneficial to gamebirds, songbirds, and pollinators, and reduce storm water runoff and erosion.”[13]

 

Historic and Special Use Districts

More than 2,400 local jurisdictions have historic preservation ordinances, and many communities require a special review of projects in historic districts.[14] Providing clear guidance within historic preservation ordinances on where and under what restrictions solar is allowed can streamline such reviews. If the zoning code is silent on solar in historic districts, it is safe to assume that solar is not allowed. Even many state statutes that protect the right to install solar can make exemptions for historic districts. This leaves it up to the local jurisdiction to determine when such installations may occur.

The North Carolina Clean Energy Technology Center and the National Trust for Historic Preservation developed 10 siting principles that communities can apply to historic properties.[15] These groups recommend considering several criteria, including siting options, screening potential, panel design, and mounting system design when determining if a solar installation on a historic structure is appropriate.

Guidance on solar in historic districts may come in the form of encouragement rather than a mandate.

Communities may include guidance for solar installations in design standards rather than a zoning ordinance. If design standards are developed outside of the zoning, they may not be as enforceable, but could still provide direction to developers about how solar energy systems could be installed on historic properties.

Figure 4: Plano, Texas Downtown Heritage Resource District Design Standards[16]

Solar Access/Solar Rights Ordinances

Apart from any legal requirements, localities have the authority to provide additional protections for homeowners. They frequently do so through a solar access ordinance, which ensures that property owners will have a “reasonable” amount of sunlight without excessive shade from structures and vegetation.[17] To produce an adequate amount of electricity, solar energy systems need access to sunlight. This access can become a challenge if a solar system is shaded by vegetation or new structures on adjacent properties. In the United States, there is no common law right to access sunlight, but states and localities have enacted provisions ensuring access to a reasonable amount of sun. These laws are in place in 43 states and the U.S. Virgin Islands.[18] The most common ways to establish these protections are through solar access easements, solar permits, solar fences, and solar rights laws.

Solar access easements are voluntary agreements between property owners, ensuring that one property will continue to have access to sunlight without obstructions from nearby properties. Many communities allow for these negotiated agreements to be recorded in the land records with the local government. Solar access easements generally do not terminate with the sale of the property and usually transfer with the title. Because they are voluntary and must be negotiated among neighbors, they are considered a relatively weak form of protection.[19]

Communities can also consider using solar access permits, which are established automatically when an owner receives a permit for a solar energy system. These permits do not require voluntary agreements between neighbors. Communities can structure these permits to balance the need to protect solar access while allowing some shading to occur. For example, a community may allow a solar system to be shaded up to 5 percent before mitigation is required.

A third choice for communities is “solar fences,” which protect a certain amount of solar access on a property regardless of whether a solar energy system is installed or not. Communities establish the “fence” by drawing an imaginary box where sunlight must fall unobstructed for a certain amount of time each day.[20] Neighbors are prohibited from developing structures or planting vegetation that would violate the shade restrictions of the solar fence.

Solar rights laws protect homeowners by limiting public or private restrictions on their ability to install solar energy systems on their own property. While these laws generally ban outright prohibitions against solar, there are varying rules on what types of restrictions a community or homeowners association may place on solar energy systems. For example, a solar rights provision may bar a homeowners association from prohibiting solar while still allowing it to set aesthetic restrictions.[21]

Solar-Ready Ordinances

Solar-ready codes for new construction (one- and two- family dwellings, multifamily, workplaces, etc.) can help make future solar installations easier and more cost effective. As defined by the National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL) overview of Solar Ready Implementation Practices, “solar ready buildings designed with continuous roof space uninterrupted by roof equipment, minimal roof shading throughout the year, and a roof oriented on an east-west horizontal axis can increase production and shorten simple payback periods.”[22]

The following is a list of solar-readiness code components that should be thoughtfully considered by municipalities:

  • Roof load bearing specifications should be sized to bear the weight of a solar installation
  • The roof should be oriented to maximize solar capacity. The greatest production will occur when a roof is south facing, angled between 30 and 45 degrees.
  • Roof types should be compatible with solar installation mounting.
  • Non-solar rooftop equipment (HVAC systems, chimneys, vents) should be placed to avoid shading of solar equipment and maximize the amount of continuous roof space.
  • Electrical panels should be sized to accommodate a future solar system.
  • There should be enough space in the utility room or outside for a solar DC-AC inverter
  • Conduit for wiring should be placed from the roof to the electrical panel.

Solar-ready codes should be mandated for both new residential (one- and two- family dwellings) buildings along with commercial (multi-family, workplaces, mixed-use) buildings. Solar-ready codes can be included in the residential and/or building code, the green building code, or the zoning ordinance. The 2018 International Energy Conservation Code includes appendices for solar-ready zones in both the residential and commercial code.[23]

 

Avoiding Grid Regulation in Zoning Codes

Policies that regulate use of the electricity grid fall outside the purview of zoning codes, which are in place to protect the health, safety, and welfare of a community. Therefore, communities should take care not to include requirements on how much electricity properties can generate, who can use the electricity, where the electricity can be used, and who must own the system. Requiring on-site consumption of accessory use solar electricity generation, for example, is often irrelevant to the impact of an installation on neighbors (or in other words, their welfare). A best practice is to define and regulate solar installations based on the area (e.g., square feet) or impact of the installation rather than the capacity. The following example presents designing a system based on performance standards.

Solar and Development Regulations

In addition to reviewing their zoning codes, communities can use many types of development incentives to encourage the installation of solar energy systems. These include financial incentives, discounted permitting fees, and flexible design standards. For example, communities may allow developers to add height or density if they include a solar energy installation of a certain size. The APA also notes that local governments can incentivize solar by providing relief from certain design requirements. One example is to pare back the parking requirement, which can cost thousands of dollars per space.[24] In addition, communities can allow the building to be slightly taller than permitted or encroach into the setback to maximize solar access.[25]

Brownfields and Under-Utilized Land

Many communities find it challenging to find productive uses for landfills, contaminated areas (“brownfields”), vacant lots, or other under-utilized land, which can be a drag on the local economy and limit local tax revenues. To address these concerns, communities may look for interim uses for the properties even if they can be repurposed for new development later.[26] The EPA estimates there are around 80,000 sites and almost 43 million acres of potentially contaminated and under-utilized properties across the nation.[27] New solar installations can put this land to productive use, while also preserving existing open space.

To encourage solar development on these properties, local governments can include language in their comprehensive, subarea, or functional plans to define how, where, and under which conditions solar can be sited on under-utilized lands. Communities can also allow expedited review of solar projects and/or exemption from certain requirements. Finally, local governments can provide financial support for projects to help make them more viable. For example, a community can provide tax incentives or exempt projects from applicable taxes or fees. Some communities allow solar projects to make payments in lieu of taxes instead of paying property taxes, which can lower costs and increase the return on investment.

 

Additional Resources

Grow Solar Toolkits for Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Illinois

These toolkits should be used as a set or resources to assist city, county, community, and electric utility leaders to navigate permitting, planning, and zoning in each of these states.

https://www.growsolar.org/toolkit/

Model Zoning for the Regulation of Solar Energy Systems for Massachusetts

This document provides model zoning language and guidance to assist Massachusetts cities and towns in establishing reasonable standards to facilitate development of solar energy systems.

https://www.mass.gov/files/documents/2016/08/nc/model-solar-zoning.pdf

American Planning Association Essential Info Packet-30, Planning and Zoning for Solar Energy

This informational packet provides an extensive collection of sample ordinances on topics such as solar access, solar siting, and solar energy systems. Further, this resource provides examples of how communities are adding solar to their comprehensive, subarea, and functional plans.

https://www.planning.org/pas/infopackets/eip30.htm

Delaware Valley Renewable Energy Ordinance Framework for Solar PV

This resource provides municipalities with information to help as they develop and update zoning ordinances to regulate solar PV in their zoning codes, subdivision codes, and other regulations and ordinances in a way that aligns with local land use and community goals.

https://www.dvrpc.org/EnergyClimate/ModelOrdinance/Solar/pdf/2016_DVRPC_Solar_REOF_Reformatted_Final.pdf

Planning and Zoning for Solar in North Carolina

This resource provides a foundation for communities to begin to evaluate solar development and craft appropriate ordinances to regulate solar PV in their communities. While the publication focuses on North Carolina, it presents model ordinances from across the country and its discussions and lessons can be applied in other states.

https://www.sog.unc.edu/sites/www.sog.unc.edu/files/full_text_books/pandzsolar2014.pdf

American Planning Association, Integrating Solar Energy into Local Development Regulations

This resource provides planners, public officials, and engaged citizens with an overview of three aspects of integrating solar energy into local development regulations—removing barriers, creating incentives, and enacting standards. It also provides examples from communities across the country that are taking steps to support local solar market growth.

https://planning-org-uploaded-media.s3.amazonaws.com/publication/download_pdf/Integrating-Solar-into-Local-Development-Regulations.pdf

 

Return to the Table of Contents: Solar Energy: SolSmart’s Toolkit For Local Governments

ENDNOTES

[1] Planning for Solar Energy, American Planning Association, April 2014. https://www.planning.org/publications/report/9117592/.

[2] Planning for Solar Energy, American Planning Association, April 2014. https://www.planning.org/publications/report/9117592/.

[3] Jeffrey Cook et al., Clean Energy in City Codes: A Baseline Analysis of Municipal Codification across the U.S., National Renewable Energy Laboratory, December 2016. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy17osti/66120.pdf.

[4] Solar Briefing Papers, American Planning Association. https://planning-org-uploaded-media.s3.amazonaws.com/legacy_resources/research/solar/briefingpapers/pdf/localdevelopmentregulations.pdf.

[5] “Maricopa County Zoning Ordinance,” Maricopa County Planning and Development Department, May 2017. https://www.maricopa.gov/DocumentCenter/View/272.

[6] “Ordinance No. 2014 1120-1,” Chisago County, Minnesota, January 2015. https://www.chisagocounty.us/DocumentCenter/View/5877/Solar-Energy-Systems-Ordinance-2014-1120-1?bidId=.

[7] Riley, Evan and Scott Olson, A Study of the Hazardous Glare Potential to Aviators from Utility-Scale Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Systems, ISRN Renewable Energy, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/651857; Clean Energy Results: Ground-Mounted Solar Photovoltaic Systems, Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, Massachusetts Clean Energy Center, June 2015. http://www.mass.gov/eea/docs/doer/renewables/solar/solar-pv-guide.pdf.

[8] “Ord. No. 2017-1518-A, § 1, 4-18-2017, General regulations for solar energy systems,” Brownsville City Commission, April 2017. https://library.municode.com/tx/brownsville/codes/code_of_ordinances?nodeId=PTIICOOR_CH18BUBURE_ARTXIENCOCO_DIV3SOENSY_S18-769GERESOENSY.

[9] “Development Standards & Regulations – Chapter 4 Design Requirements and Performance Standards,” Adams County, Colorado, March 22, 2016. http://www.adcogov.org/sites/default/files/Chapter4_Design_Requirements_Performance_Standards.pdf.

[10] Planning for Solar Energy, American Planning Association, April 2014. https://www.planning.org/publications/report/9117592/.

[11] Planning for Solar Energy, American Planning Association, April 2014. https://www.planning.org/publications/report/9117592/.

[12] Beatty, Brenda, Jordan Macknick, James McCall, Genevieve Braus, and David Buckner, Native Vegetation Performance under a Solar PV Array at the National Wind Technology Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, May 2017. www.nrel.gov/docs/fy17osti/66218.pdf.

[13] “Minnesota Statutes 2016 – 216B.1642 Solar Site Management,” Office of the Revisor of Statutes, Accessed July 25, 2017, https://www.revisor.mn.gov/statutes/?id=216B.1642.

[14] National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places, https://www.nps.gov/subjects/nationalregister/index.htm

[15] Planning for Solar Energy, American Planning Association, April 2014. https://www.planning.org/publications/report/9117592/.

[16] “Downtown Heritage Resource District Design Standards,” City of Plano, Texas, 2016, https://www.plano.gov/DocumentCenter/View/18164.

[17] Integrating Solar Energy into Local Development Regulations, American Planning Association, July 2014. https://www.planning.org/publications/document/9148295/.

[18] Database of State Incentives for Renewable & Efficiency, Accessed July 25, 2019. http://programs.dsireusa.org/system/program?type=44&

[19] Planning for Solar Energy, American Planning Association, April 2014. https://www.planning.org/publications/report/9117592/.

[20] Planning for Solar Energy, American Planning Association, April 2014. https://www.planning.org/publications/report/9117592/.

[21] A Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood: Encouraging Solar Development through Community Association Policies and Processes, The Solar Foundation. http://solarize-nc.org/wp-content/uploads/NCSEA-HOA-Guide_Final.pdf

[22] Watson, Andrea, Linda Guidice, Lars Lisell, Liz Doris, and Sarah Busche, Solar Ready: An Overview of Implementation Practices, NREL, 2012. https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/51296.pdf.

[23] 2018 International Energy Conservation Code, Appendix CA – Solar-Ready Zone Commercial. https://codes.iccsafe.org/content/iecc2018/appendix-ca-solar-ready-zone-commercial

[24] Planning for Solar Energy, American Planning Association, April 2014. https://www.planning.org/publications/report/9117592/.

[25] Planning for Solar Energy, American Planning Association, April 2014. https://www.planning.org/publications/report/9117592/.

[26] Recycling Land for Solar Energy Development, American Planning Association, December 2012. https://www.planning.org/publications/document/9148299/.

[27] RE-Powering America’s Land Initiative: Renewable Energy on potentially Contaminate Land, Landfills an Mine Sites, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2016. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-09/documents/re_powering_program_overview.pdf

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